Publications - Policing - Crime Prevention A Framework for Action
Publications – Policing
Crime Prevention in Ontario: A Framework for Action
Ontario Association of Chiefs of Police Message
Section 1 – Introduction
Section 2 – Nature and Extent of Crime
Section 3 – What is Crime Prevention?
Section 4 – Rationale for Engaging in Crime Prevention
Section 5 – Ontario’s Partners in Crime Prevention
Section 6 – Ontario’s Resources
Section 7 – Opportunities for Strengthening Crime Prevention in Ontario
Section 8 – Ontario’s Way Forward
Section 9 – The Next Phase
Message from the Minister
Ontario continues to see significant reductions in the rate of crime in various categories. This encouraging trend provides support to our efforts to work closely with our partners to prevent and reduce the incidence of crime in our communities. Yet, there is more work to be done. We will minimize the risk factors that contribute to criminal activity and maximize the positive factors that help reduce crime and make our communities safer.
It is important to develop a focus on crime prevention, involving all stakeholders, and build on the successes to date. This document serves as a guide to the task ahead.
Crime prevention is everyone’s responsibility – federal, provincial, and municipal government, police services, community organizations and citizens. A successful strategy will reach out to all members of society including vulnerable groups, children and youth, offenders and victims and use a variety of initiatives that respond to the particular needs of each.
I welcome the participation of the Ontario Association of Chiefs of Police and all our partners and congratulate them for joining in this important effort.
Honourable Madeleine Meilleur, Minister of Community Safety and Correctional Services
Ontario Association of Chiefs of Police Message
The most effective method of reducing crime in a community is preventing it from happening in the first place. Although not often the subject of front-page news, crime prevention methods are an effective, cost-saving measure that improves quality of life for all, and contributes to the overall wellbeing of Ontarians.
From a policing perspective, preventing crime cannot be accomplished solely through law enforcement. In order to truly affect crime, community members, social groups, businesses and governments must be able to identify crime trends, be educated in prevention strategies, and be prepared to apply overall best practices - together. This booklet, Crime Prevention in Ontario: A Framework for Action is a useful resource that provides integral background information on the current criminal landscape, offers a variety of crime prevention approaches, and outlines the cost-effectiveness of being proactive when it comes to addressing root causes of crime.
The Ontario Association of Chiefs of Police (OACP) is committed to working together with all Ontarians to support the objectives of crime prevention in our communities and realize the many positive impacts of these practices. By experiencing less crime, we will collectively realize considerable cost-savings, reduced fear of crime, and most importantly, fewer victims.
On behalf of the OACP, I thank you for your interest in crime prevention and I encourage you to review and familiarize yourself with Crime Prevention in Ontario: A Framework for Action. Rest assured that crime prevention and reduction is a top priority for police services throughout Ontario.
Chief Matthew A. Torigian, President, Ontario Association of Chiefs of Police
Section 1 – Introduction
Setting the Stage
Community safety is one of the concerns most frequently expressed by Ontarians. Although statistics point to overall falling crime rates, Ontario’s citizens want assurances that they are safe in their own communities.
The Ontario government is dedicated to making Ontarians safer in their communities by being tough on crime through effective enforcement and crime prevention. The key to enhancing personal and community security through crime prevention is to actively address the risk factors associated with crime.
Provincially, the Ministry of Community Safety and Correctional Services (MCSCS) has a strong commitment to preventing crime. MCSCS continuously delivers services and sets standards, policies and guidelines in policing, corrections and public safety to keep Ontario’s communities safe. This is evident through the extensive work undertaken in partnership with various municipal police services, the Ontario Provincial Police (O.P.P.), all levels of government and community agencies in promoting crime prevention through community policing and community mobilization throughout the province.
In addition, a number of ministries are involved in the support and delivery of community well-being and social development related programs that contribute to crime prevention. Strong legislative, policy and program ground work has been laid throughout the province and communities across Ontario have built varying degrees of local crime prevention capacity.
In Spring 2009, MCSCS partnered with the Ontario Association of Chiefs of Police (OACP) to initiate the development of a provincial response to crime and victimization through a collaborative and integrated crime prevention approach. The OACP is a strong proponent of provincial leadership in the area of crime prevention and reiterated this position at the 2009 OACP Conference by passing a resolution that calls for the establishment of a coordinated response to preventing crime.
As a first step, MCSCS, in partnership with the OACP, has developed the Crime Prevention in Ontario: A Framework for Action booklet, which is intended to:
- Raise awareness and generate a dialogue on crime prevention in Ontario;
- Highlight the opportunities to move forward;
- Set the stage for the development of further crime prevention work which will: build and enhance crime prevention partnerships; encourage the development of coordinated, multi-sectoral responses; and promote community leadership and participation in crime prevention.
Section 2 – Nature and Extent of Crime
In order to understand the complexities of undertaking crime prevention in Ontario, it is important to put crime-related statistics into context by providing an overall proﬁle of the jurisdiction. Our province is home to over 13 million individuals, which translates into approximately 1 out of 3 Canadians residing in Ontario. Over 85% of the population lives in urban centres and 90% live in southern Ontario, with the largest concentration of people and cities falling into the ‘Golden Horseshoe’ region along Lake Ontario. The remaining 15% live in rural and/or remote communities1. Spatially, over 440 municipalities and 133 First Nation communities span across more than 900,000 square km of land and water2.
Ontario’s population is as diverse as its geography. About 2.7 million individuals in Ontario self-identify as members of a visible minority group and about 6.8 million individuals belong to one or more of over 200 ethnic groups. Since 2001 this number has increased by 27.5%. Much of this growth is attributed to immigration3. The population aged 65 and over is expected to double to 3.5 million by the year 20314.
Roughly 242,000 Aboriginal people (which includes First Nations, Inuit and Métis) reside in Ontario and 105,205 or 43% of these are under 25 years old. Approximately 80% of First Nation people live off reserve and 20% live on reserve in Ontario5.
According to crime data, between 2007 and 2009, Ontario had one of the lowest violent and non- violent crime rates in Canada6. Despite the notable decrease in overall crime volume and severity, the perception Ontarians have of crime deserves attention. As 2001 data shows, a signiﬁcant segment of our society – over 80% - feels that crime in their neighbourhoods is either increasing or remaining the same year over year7.
Statistics pertaining to the nature and extent of crime in Ontario can be derived from multiple
provincial and national sources. In 2011, Statistics Canada released a report based on 2010 data, which analyzed police-reported violent and non-violent crimes. For that year, police-reported crime dropped by 6% from the previous year in Canada. Almost all Criminal Code and federal offences declined in 20108.
In addition to these statistics, it is important to account for unreported or undiscovered crime. In order for an incident to be included in police-reported crime statistics a victim must be aware that a crime has occurred and it must be reported to the police. A disruption at any one of these stages can result in the incident not being captured by police-reported crime statistics, resulting in the rate of reported crime being lower than the actual state of crime. This dilemma becomes apparent when we look at the 2004 Statistics Canada General Social Survey which states the unofﬁcial crime rate of 28,000 per 100,000 while the ofﬁcial crime statistics showed a rate of only 8,951 per 100,000 population9.
The overall rates for offences in Ontario are as follows:
- homicide – 1.4 per 100,000 population
- serious assaults – 114 per 100,000 population
- break and enters – 414 per 100,000 population
- motor vehicle theft – 171 per 100,000 population
- Statistics Canada (2010)
- In 2006, over 38,000 incidents of spousal violence were reported to police in Canada and approximately 1/3 of these incidents occurred in Ontario10. In 2009, of the nearly 19 million Canadians who had a current or former spouse, 1.2 million reported they have been a victim of physical or sexual abuse by their partner in the previous five years11.
- In 2009, 176 out of 100,000 seniors were the victims of elder violence with the majority of the abusers being an adult child12.
- Alcohol impairment accounts for almost 25% of all fatalities on Ontario’s roads. In 2005, 174 people were killed and 3,852 were injured in motor vehicle collisions involving a drunk driver13. In 2010 there was a 6% decrease in the rate of impaired driving incidents over the previous year14.
- In 2009, police services across Canada reported 1,473 hate-motivated crimes – a 42% increase from 2008. This followed a 35% increase between 2007 and 2008. Ontario accounted for 901 of the hate crime offences committed in 2009. Kitchener-Cambridge-Waterloo, Guelph, Peterborough and Ottawa reported the highest number of police-reported hate crimes in 2009. Ottawa, Toronto, Kitchener-Cambridge-Waterloo and Montreal accounted for the largest increase in hate crimes between 2008 and 200915.
- Cyber crime is a complex and quickly increasing crime trend. Cyber crime includes new crimes (phishing) as well as a variety of traditional crimes (extortion, fraud, intimidation, sexual exploitation) that are carried out on-line using a computer. The Canadian anti-fraud call centre – Phonebusters – received 332 reports of losses of over $12.5 million in 419 scams over the internet in Ontario alone. Further, 24,479 Ontarians reported being victims of identity theft with an estimated total loss of over $46 million16.
- Bullying is an issue encountered in Ontario schools and communities, with studies showing that children who bully others are 37% more likely than those who do not bully to commit offences as adults17. In terms of victimization, approximately one in three students in Grades 7 to 12 reports having been bullied at school18.
- In 2006, 60,616 youth (aged 12-17 years) in Ontario were implicated in a violation of the Criminal Code (excluding traffic) bringing Ontario’s youth crime rate to 5,956 per 100,000 youth. This represents a 1% increase over the previous year19.
- Knives were the most common weapon students brought to school with 1 in 5 students reporting that they carried a knife to school20. Further, knives are the most commonly used weapon to commit violent offences, with three in 10 homicides being committed using a knife. Knife-related crime is on the rise in Ontario. According to the Canadian Centre Justice Statistics (CCJS), police reported 23,500 victims of violent crime with instances involving a knife in Canada in 2008. Of these, 7,111 were in Ontario21.
- Over 2,400 high school students in Toronto carried a gun to school in the 2004/05 academic year. The problems associated with guns and gangs were highlighted by Toronto’s ‘Summer of the Gun’ in 2005, when the gun-related homicide rate doubled to 52 in total, of which 11.4% were gang-related22.
- Results from the 2002 ‘Canadian Police Survey on Youth Gangs’ indicate that Ontario has the highest number of youth gangs (approximately 216) and youth gang members (approximately 3,320) of all jurisdictions in Canada. Reports indicate that males compose 97% of the gang member population23. Ottawa, Toronto and Thunder Bay are considered the focal points for street gang activity which ranges from drug trafficking to violence24. Further, First Nation-based gangs represent about 4% of total gang members in Ontario25 and continue to exist mainly in Northern Ontario26.
- The 2009 Report on Organized Crime conﬁrms that organized crime is a major crime issue for Ontario. Contraband tobacco, environmental crime, ﬁnancial crime (money laundering, fraud), illicit drugs and synthetics, as well as illicit ﬁrearms and theft of intellectual property rights are some of the major activities requiring intervention27. These newer trends build upon existing issues such as: human trafﬁcking, motor vehicle theft, street gangs28 , and illegal immigration and weapons trafﬁcking29. Due to technological advancements in the past decade, organized crime has become increasingly trans-national, harder to detect and requires the cooperation of multiple jurisdictions30. Out of the Shadows: An Overview of Organized Crime in Ontario, 2007, points to the fact that there is growing diversity among the groups and individuals engaging in organized crime activity in Ontario. In terms of its composition, research shows that the face of organized crime has morphed to include various ethno-cultural and socio-economic groups as well as both genders31.
- Aboriginal people continue to be overrepresented in Ontario’s correctional system, as is the case nationally. In 2007, Aboriginal people represented 1.8% of the adult population in Ontario, but accounted for 9% of the remand population and 8.5% of the sentenced population32.
- The table below illustrates overall charges laid in Ontario by offence type during the period January 2009 to December 2009.
|OFFENCE TYPE (Ontario)||CHARGES RECEIVED|
|Administration of Justice Offences*||139,349|
|Break and enter||15,763|
|Drug possession and trafficking||52,179|
|Major and common assault||70,190|
|Sexual assault and other sexual offences||10,762|
|Youth Criminal Justice Act offences||13,711|
Includes: Fail to Appear, Breach of Probation, Unlawfully at Large, Fail to Comply with Order and Other Administration of Justice Offences.
Section 3 – What is Crime Prevention?
Crime prevention speaks to a desire to circumvent a crime before it occurs. Extensive research has been done in defining crime prevention. The definition guiding crime prevention in Ontario reads as follows:
“The anticipation, recognition and appraisal of a crime risk and the actions taken – including the integrated community leadership required – to remove or reduce it”.
The intent of this definition is to take an inclusive and truly preventative approach in order to predict, identify, prevent and reduce crime by addressing the risk factors associated with crime and victimization. This definition encourages communities to focus on the factors that precipitate the onset of criminal and anti-social behaviour through the proactive provision of measures that target all members of society including children and youth, the elderly, offenders, and victims.
‘Integrated community leadership’ is an essential part of crime prevention. Effective crime prevention strategies involve a multi-sectoral approach (academic institutions, community agencies, government, mental health agencies and police services among others) in an effort to build strong, cohesive, localized community capacity to effectively prevent crime.
Risk Factors of Crime
Risk factors are the negative characteristics and/or conditions present in individuals, families, communities or society that may increase the presence of crime or fear of crime in a community. These factors may also increase the likelihood that individuals engage in crime and/or become victims. It is important to note that these risk factors are multi-dimensional and overlap with each other.
Examples of these are listed in the table below.
Poor educational achievement
Poor mental health
Prior criminal behaviour
Few economic resources
Poor peer influences
|Crime in area
Few social services
High poverty concentration
|Cultural norms supporting violence
Negative media messaging
Any one single risk factor does not work in isolation to cause crime. Instead, research shows that “…the interaction and accumulation of risk factors increase the likelihood...” of delinquent or criminal behaviour “...not only because the effect of risk factors is cumulative, but also because they interact.” - Public Safety Canada
|Personal coping strategies
Strong attachment to adult
Positive school experience
Sense of responsibility
|Adequate parental supervision
Parent(s) engaged in child’s life
Positive peer influences
|Housing in close proximity to services
Recreational facilities for youth
|Low social tolerance of violence
High awareness of the determinants of well-being
Protective factors are positive elements that can mediate or moderate the effect of being exposed to risk factors and can help to foster healthier individuals, families and communities thereby increasing the safety of a community. Listed below are a number of general protective factors, including individual, familial and societal variables that may decrease the likelihood of crime and victimization. For a more complete list of risk and/or protective factors please refer to APPENDIX 1.
By focusing on building and improving protective factors and decreasing risk factors identified throughout this section, Ontarians can create healthier, stronger, safer communities and provide required supports and opportunities for individuals, thereby decreasing crime to a considerable degree.
Crime Prevention Approaches
Crime prevention can be achieved in various ways and at various points in time. Each stage in the chart illustrated below is extremely valuable and serves an important purpose. From the preventative perspective, the two key stages are:
- Prevention prior to occurrence; and,
- (Post-incarceration/community supervision.
|Prevention prior to occurrence of crime||Arrest and Post-Arrest*||Sentencing||Incarceration||Post incarceration/community supervision|
|Crime Prevention Opportunity||Target risk factors of crime||Identify and suppress crime||Identify opportunities for alternative measures, diversion programs and mandatory programming||Rehabilitate and treat offenders||Reduce recidivism and influence offender decisions|
|Applying the appropriate sentencing option||Incapacitate
|Scope||Risk factors of crime||Criminal Act||Criminal act & risk factors of crime||Criminal act & risk factors of crime||Risk factors of criminality
|Focus||Potential victims and potential offenders||Accused/Actual Offender||Actual offender||Actual offender and actual victim||Actual offender and actual victim|
* Refers to the period between being arrested and being sentenced (if applicable). For example, being held in remand falls within the post-arrest category.
Crime prevention is not a static concept, its parameters change over time. Current crime prevention practices focus largely on targeting the risk factors that contribute to crime through social development approaches. The emphasis is on early intervention and focuses on combining two main types of crime prevention: situational and social development.
Situational crime prevention seeks to reduce the opportunity to commit crime in a particular time and place. As part of this approach, situations are altered to make it less likely that the potential offender will commit a crime.
Examples of Situational Crime Prevention
- Surveillance and monitoring systems
- Crime Prevention through Environmental Design
- Car and home alarm systems
Crime Prevention through Social Development (CPSD) recognizes that the intersection of multiple, complex social, economic, health and environmental factors lead to criminality. CPSD involves long-term, sustainable, multi-agency, integrated actions that deal with the risk factors and divert people from the path of crime, and build protective factors that may mitigate those risks.
A strong community policing framework currently exists in Ontario and works concurrent to situational and social development crime prevention methods. The OACP defines community policing as the process by which police and other community members partner to improve community wellbeing, safety and security through joint problem identification, analysis, response and evaluation. The Ontario Police College training for new and existing recruits currently includes community policing.
Examples of Crime Prevention through Social Development
- Teaching parenting skills
- Improve literacy rates
- Provide aggression management and counselling
- Increase employment opportunities
- Community Engagement in developing pro-active initiatives
Section 4 – Rationale for Engaging in Crime Prevention
“Crime prevention today is an essential instrument for bringing down the crime rate, including crimes that are reported to police and those that remain undisclosed. It makes neighborhoods safe and at the same time ensures that people’s rights and freedoms are respected.”35
Address Crime Before It Occurs
‘Prevention is better than cure.’ The intention is to work with communities to identify the risk factors that may lead to criminality even before it occurs. Crime prevention allows communities to work to reduce the motivation and risk factors associated with crime thereby safeguarding potential victims.
In addition, programs that reduce recidivism are an essential part of crime prevention. There is value in working with individuals who have been convicted to reduce future criminality. Ultimately, addressing crime before it occurs for the first, second or any subsequent time will enhance the safety of Ontarians.
“Although it seems contradictory, a violence prevention plan cannot focus on violence. Instead it must focus on human and social development. This is because violence is a symptom of a society out of balance, and unless and until that balance is created, violence will continue at an unacceptable level.” - Waterloo Crime Prevention Council (2006)
The overall financial and social costs of crime are increasingly important for society and government. Crime places a large financial burden on Ontarians. There are both tangible and intangible costs associated with crime. Tangible costs can be assigned a financial value and include medical, mental health, criminal justice, victim services, protective services costs and the value of stolen or damaged property. Intangible, or non-monetary costs, are generally more difficult to measure and include pain and suffering, fear of crime, hindering economic development, and lost quality of life. Significant also are the negative implications in terms of costs to the victims’ and offenders’ families.
“Thorough economic evaluation has shown that preventing just one career criminal can save society over $2 million. It is easy to see how a prevention program that costs $1.5 million to deliver services to 100 participants would be successful from an economic standpoint even if it only prevents 1% of program participants from a life of crime.” - Pennsylvania State University (2008)
In 2003, crime and victimization cost Canadians over $70 billion, of which, $13 billion was spent on the criminal justice system.36 In 2008, the cost of crime was estimated at $100 billion.37
A study released in 2009 showed that for an average municipality of 900,000 people, the estimated annual costs of crime to victims and the public is more than $1.3 billion.38
From a cost-benefit perspective, extensive research shows that crime prevention programs have proven to have significant returns on investment and are a cost-effective manner in which to address crime. It is fiscally responsible to work collaboratively and allocate resources in a balanced manner to target the risk factors of crime.
Studies confirm that a dollar invested now in crime prevention and early intervention avoids seven dollars spent on incarceration, victim services and other associated costs in the future. Another study found that one dollar allocated for enriched child care saves $17 in criminal justice costs in the future.39
The Perry School Program provides evidence that the crime prevention through social development approach is cost-effective. “…for every dollar spent on the program, the community gained roughly $7 dollars worth of benefits in crime reduction and improvement of life opportunities.” This includes the benefits realised by participants and the costs avoided for criminal justice and victims services.
- Australian Institute of Criminology (2000)
- Better Beginnings, Better Futures (2004)
The ‘Better Beginnings, Better Futures Program’ serves as a local example of crime prevention through social development and illustrates the cost-effectiveness of implementing this type of program. It costs approximately $2,960 to put a child through the program. Through an extensive research project, Queens University found that Better Beginnings resulted in cost savings by: lowering the number of visits children made to their physician; decreasing grade repetitions; decreasing the need to use special education programs; lowering arrests; decreasing instances of individuals requiring welfare and/or disability services.40
As illustrated below, an extensive evaluation of six crime prevention programs in Pennsylvania – each of which targets risk factors associated with crime – revealed a considerable return on investment.41
|Crime prevention programs||Per Dollar Return on Investment|
|Life skills training||$25.72|
|Multi-dimensional training foster care||$11.14|
|Functional family therapy||$14.56|
|Strengthening families program 10-14||$7.82|
Supported By Research
Evidence shows that social development approaches are cost effective and are effective at reducing crime and victimization. Research and current practices internationally, nationally and locally indicate that social development activities that target the risk factors of crime are the best way to address crime. Numerous provincial, national and international governments and agencies are increasingly focusing on social development by developing and delivering integrated multi-disciplinary strategies to this end.
The public is highly supportive of prevention. When asked to identify the principal goal of the criminal justice system, twice as many Canadians supported prevention as opposed to punishment. Furthermore, while people recognize and value the strong need for a robust corrections system and processes to control and incapacitate offenders, only 16% believe that corrections actually help prisoners become productive, law abiding citizens.42
Section 5 – Ontario’s Partners in Crime Prevention
Reducing crime and victimization requires localized, collaborative and comprehensive planning. In Ontario, existing programs and services intended to build safer communities are delivered by a network of partners, including government, non-profit organizations, law enforcement, and the private sector.
The causes of crime are complex and interrelated, and so must be the response. Strong partnerships, centralized planning, and alignment with other crime prevention efforts are the key drivers in realizing an effective crime prevention strategy.
Current Government Initiatives
Provincially-led strategies contributing to community well-being include:
- Ministry of Children and Youth Services – Ontario Poverty Reduction Strategy;
- Ministry of Health and Long Term Care – Mental Health and Addictions Strategy;
- Ministry of Municipal Affairs and Housing – Long-Term Affordable Housing Strategy;
- Ministry of Community and Social Services – Aboriginal Healing and Wellness Strategy;
- Ministry of Attorney General – Victims Services Secretariat and Alternative Measures Programs; Aboriginal Justice Strategy;
- Ministry of Education – Safer Schools Strategy;
- Ministry of Aboriginal Affairs – New Approach to Aboriginal Affairs.
Other Ontario government actions include:
- Developing a Youth Policy Framework;
- Responding to the Ipperwash Inquiry and the Hate Crimes Community Working Group Report;
- Implementation of full day kindergarten and improvements to the immunization program for children and adolescents;
- Expanding the Guns and Gangs Task Force as well as the OPP-led Provincial Weapons Enforcement Unit;
- Hiring more police officers, more crown attorneys, more victims services staff, and more adult probation and parole officers;
- Increases in social assistance and Ontario Child Benefit rates;
- Investing in community initiatives with a focus on youth-based crime prevention programs; and
- Targeting organized crime through focused intelligence-gathering efforts.
Further, MCSCS ensures all of Ontario’s communities are safe, supported and protected by law enforcement, and that community safety and correctional services are secure, effective and accountable. Each year the ministry leads a number of police and community-based programs that promote community safety in priority areas. Examples of programs include:
- Community Policing Partnerships (CPP) Program
- Crime Stoppers Centralized After-Hours Phone Service
- Hate Crime and Extremism Investigative Team (HCEIT)
- Provincial Anti-Violence Intervention Strategy (PAVIS)
- Provincial Strategy to Protect Children from Sexual Abuse and Exploitation on the Internet
- Reduce Impaired Driving Everywhere (R.I.D.E.)
- Safer Communities – 1,000 Officers Partnership Program
- Safer and Vital Communities
MCSCS supports and emphasizes holding offenders and inmates accountable in order to create healthier and safer communities. Correctional services offer rehabilitation, treatment, training, life skills and education as a way to support inmates in institutions and those under community supervision to address their offending behaviour and reduce recidivism. Addressing their offending behaviour, and assisting those who have been in institutions to integrate back into the workforce or school can have positive impacts on recidivism.
While all of these efforts support our common objective of making Ontario safer, we continue to believe that effectively fighting crime requires mobilizing and organizing within communities.
The National Crime Prevention Strategy (NCPS) is an integral part of the federal government’s efforts to tackle crime in order to build safer communities.
The NCPS provides a policy framework for the implementation of crime prevention interventions in Canada. It is administered by the National Crime Prevention Centre (NCPC) within Public Safety Canada.
With an investment of $63 million annually, NCPC assists communities in developing projects that reduce crime by reducing the personal, social and economic factors that lead some individuals to commit criminal acts. NCPC focuses particularly on children, youth and young adults who show multiple risk factors known to be related to offending behaviour; high risk offenders in communities; and First Nation, remote and northern communities, especially those with high crime rates and persistent crime problems.
The NCPC administers three funding programs, including the Crime Prevention Action Fund (CPAF), the Northern and Aboriginal Crime Prevention Fund and the Youth Gang Prevention Fund. The Ontario Project Review Committee recommends projects for funding by a Project Review Committee (PRC) that includes representatives from the NCPC and provincial or territorial governments which are forwarded to the Department of Public Safety for final review and approval.
Municipalities play an important role in providing crime prevention interventions in Ontario. As the order of government closest to the public, municipalities are well positioned to work with local partners to develop effective community-based programs. They are also best able to identify local crime problems as well as the conditions that contribute to those problems. Many municipalities are well advanced in developing and delivering situational and social development crime prevention programs and practices.
First Nation Communities
Many First Nation communities face unique challenges with respect to crime, violence and victimization, making it difficult to move forward in positive and rewarding ways.43 However, some communities have experienced healing, relationship building and social and economic development. These are critical steps toward successful intervention in communities that may lack capacity to prevent crime. For example, some First Nation communities have initiated healing circle processes as a way to respond to the harms within their community.
Remedying communities at risk or in crisis requires the effective integration of personal, economic, social and political efforts that address the risk factors associated with crime and victimization. By building partnerships with those most affected all sectors will be in a better position to deliver transformative interventions that apply to Aboriginal traditions, practices and cultures.44 Further, crime and victimization in First Nation communities does not only affect rural and remote regions. The Ontario Federation of Indian Friendship Centres and legal organizations have a strong presence in urban communities with high percentages of Aboriginal people.
Ontario Police Services
Ontario is a leader in recognizing the pivotal role police services play in crime prevention. This is demonstrated through current legislative requirements under the Police Services Act, which mandates police services to provide community-based crime prevention initiatives in the areas that they serve. Ontario’s police services recognize that crime prevention is a key component of community mobilization and that strong community partnerships are an essential element of any crime prevention strategy.
Further, the OACP is a policing leader in the area of crime prevention and supports social development. A recent example is the review and revision of the Community Policing Model, originally developed in 1996. The new model defines community policing as “…the process by which police and other community members partner to improve community wellbeing, safety and security through joint problem identification, analysis, response and evaluation.”45
First Nations Police Services
First Nations Police Services encounter unique issues when dealing with crime and victimization. Adequate and culturally appropriate policing can have a positive impact in mitigating the risk factors associated with Aboriginal offending. A mandate of the First Nations Chiefs of Police Association (FNCPA) in partnership with the Aboriginal Policing Directorate at the Department of Public Safety is to continually develop strategic partnerships to complement the delivery of culturally sensitive crime prevention services
Community and Non-Profit Organizations
The localized approach to building healthier and safer communities relies on society’s participation in mobilizing and sustaining crime prevention initiatives. To date, communities across Ontario have established strategic partnerships with non-profit organizations in order to develop and deliver comprehensive crime prevention services that respond to local needs and conditions.
To strengthen these efforts, the Ontario Trillium Foundation has granted hundreds of millions of dollars to thousands of community and non-profit organizations across the province. The Foundation’s mission is ‘building healthy and vibrant communities throughout Ontario by strengthening the capacity of the voluntary sector, through investments in community-based initiatives’.
In addition to recognizing the importance of involving all levels of government, law enforcement and the community, strategic efforts to prevent and reduce crime also require private sector involvement and investment. The impact of crime on private businesses and the communities in which they are located can be substantial; i.e., affecting a company’s ability to attract customers, recruiting and retaining employees, ensuring productivity, or staying in business.
Given the overall financial impacts of crime, it is clearly in the interest of the private sector to help build stronger and safer communities. The private sector can bring its creativity, skills, and resources to assist in the development of crime prevention strategies.
A safe and positive learning environment is essential to help students succeed, reduce the fear and incidence of crime, and contribute to community safety and crime prevention. As part of the Ontario Safe Schools Strategy, changes are being made in existing curricula for all levels of the education system to ensure students feel safe at schools and on school grounds. These changes will assist students in making good personal choices and dealing positively with issues such as conflict resolution, bullying, inappropriate sexual behaviour, harassment and discrimination.
The Ontario government is also working with schools and communities to prevent youth violence by shifting away from an approach that is solely punitive towards progressive discipline. The new approach corrects inappropriate behaviour by providing early and ongoing intervention, involving parents sooner, and working with law enforcement, social workers, counsellors and psychologists to offer support to at-risk youth.
Post-secondary institutions such as universities, polytechnics and colleges also play an important role in crime prevention. They provide access to authoritative sources of crime prevention expertise, data, crime trends, proven examples of projects that have prevented crime, and the reasons for investing in crime prevention. By fostering a network of partners, and organizing conferences and workshops, higher academic institutions disseminate scientific knowledge and evidence-based practices and help relevant stakeholders enhance community safety in their local areas.
Section 6 – Ontario’s Resources
Ontario, much like any other jurisdiction in Canada, experiences various types of crime in each of its urban, rural and remote communities. Ontario has an existing vast pool of resources to support a comprehensive and integrated approach in responding to crime and victimization in communities across the province. While a more comprehensive discussion of Ontario’s partners is provided in section 5, from a provincial perspective, various government ministries play a significant role in contributing to community well-being and addressing the risk factors associated with crime and victimization. The Ontario government has taken significant steps to reduce future levels of crime and victimization by focussing on the areas of community safety, education, health care, and poverty, among others.
Overview of Ontario’s Resources
- 20 Universities, 28 community colleges, and over 1,800 elementary and high schools
- University-based Centres of Criminology and/or Crime Prevention
- About 30 provincial government ministries
- Over 50 municipal police services
- 9 First Nations Police Services
- Ontario Provincial Police
- Ontario Association of Chiefs of Police
- Over 200 hospital sites
- Over 300 community mental health organizations
- Over 150 addiction treatment organizations
- 74 Schedule 1 psychiatric facilities
- 50 Human Services and Justice Coordinating Committees
- 116 diversion and court support programs through community mental health
- 67 community crime prevention councils
- 160 residential facilities for abused women and children
- About 30 provincial adult correctional facilities
- Dedicated youth justice custody/detention facilities
- 416 community-based youth justice services and programs
- 53 Children’s Aid Societies
- 119 adult parole / probation offices; 64 youth justice probation offices
- Over 440 Municipalities
- 133 First Nation communities
- 29 Friendship Centres
- Association of Municipalities of Ontario
Section 7 – Opportunities for Strengthening Crime Prevention in Ontario
A sustainable crime prevention strategy is required across all sectors in Ontario to address the risk factors of crime in a holistic, consistent and integrated manner. To that end, a number of strategic opportunities have been identified that could strengthen the delivery of crime prevention services in Ontario.
Integration of Crime Prevention Efforts
Currently, there are many levels of government, groups, organizations and police services working on crime prevention that could learn from, and assist each other. The efforts and resources being spent on crime prevention could be enhanced by working as part of a network of partners where experience, expertise, and information can be readily shared. For example, some crime prevention practitioners are unaware of federal and provincial grant programs and existing projects from which they might benefit, learn, or incorporate into their own programs. This may limit the emergence of programs with great potential.
Evidence-based Research and Evaluation
There has been significant effective, reliable, and result-based evaluation of crime prevention programs which facilitates the delivery of future interventions. In-depth and qualitative evaluations of crime prevention through social development programs offer opportunity to provide an analysis of long-term prevention effects. This level of analysis is useful for gaining detailed knowledge about the positive elements that can mediate or moderate exposure to risk factors.
Information Sharing Among Crime Prevention Partners, Services and Referral Programs
All levels of government, law enforcement and the community require readily available access to credible information on crime prevention. Increased information sharing between organizations and partnerships may address the risk factors associated with crime such as treatment programs and facilities for mental health and addiction issues, temporary supportive housing and social activities. An example is Ontario 211 which is a free public information service that connects people with information, and provides access to over 56,000 community resources, social, health and related government services and programs.
Crime Prevention Education and Awareness
Public education and awareness is an important tool for preventing crime and victimization. Actions such as using social/commercial media to educate communities about how they can avoid being victimized or how to identify the early signs of risk factors for crime in an individual can go a long way. Education and awareness campaigns can also play a strong role in enhancing the community’s understanding of the benefits of social development and crime prevention.
Promising practices on rehabilitative programming for youth indicate that in order to ease a young person’s transition from custody to the community and to foster desistance from crime, the public and communities into which they are reintegrating need to be supportive. To that end, media can assist in changing public sentiments and misperceptions about the best way in which to deal with crime and victimization, thereby generating new ideas on how to make communities safer.
Publicizing crime prevention and social development through a variety of media channels can be an effective way to reach large target audiences quickly and persuasively. In this respect, the internet, print and broadcast media could be utilized to educate the public on issues of crime prevention and to deliver important messages related to community safety.
Section 8 – Ontario’s Way Forward
Ontarians generally look first to the police as credible authorities on crime and crime prevention issues. As a result, a large burden is placed on our police services to engage in community mobilization and crime prevention along with the traditional methods of crime control and law enforcement. While police play a strong and active role in responding to these expectations, building strong, healthy communities from the ground up requires a localized response and involvement of many partners.
In response to this challenge, MCSCS in partnership with the OACP has undertaken the development of this booklet. To date, the input received from many of our partners has been critical in exploring possibilities on how to move forward. The objectives, pillars, guiding principles, and priority groups identified in this section have all been developed based on existing crime prevention strategies across Canada and internationally and on research findings. These have been further refined to reflect Ontario’s unique needs after consultation with multiple stakeholders. Gathering input and feedback from a variety of sources will be essential and MCSCS will continue to engage municipalities and Aboriginal communities as we move forward.
- Strengthen sense of safety in communities across Ontario.
- Demonstrate provincial leadership in crime prevention and community wellness.
- Bring together various levels of government, police, community agencies, individual community members, business, educators and health care professionals to create an integrated approach to crime prevention.
- Ensure federal/provincial/municipal initiatives are complementary and aligned.
- Assist Ontario’s communities in developing their own, region-specific crime prevention/social development activities.
- Enhance community level involvement, ownership and control in the development and implementation of crime prevention activities.
- Identify priority areas and vulnerable groups affected by crime and target the socio-economic risk factors of crime and reduce the opportunity to commit crime.
The pillars of a coordinated, multi-disciplinary approach to crime prevention.
Prevention through Social Development by targeting risk factors associated with crime and victimization.
Prevention through Situational Measures by reducing opportunity to commit crime.
Prevention through Education and Awareness of all Ontarians, including building knowledge about local communities and their needs.
Prevention through Community Policing by enhancing policing efforts and supporting police in their crime prevention activities.
The guiding principles outline fundamental ways in which crime prevention can be undertaken.
Prevent crime through community leadership and a local approach
Each community is unique in its capabilities and needs. Communities are best placed to provide the most accurate and relevant information pertaining to their crime problems and can best create responses that are applicable to the specific needs of their region.
Through community leadership, citizens are given ownership and responsibility for creating safe communities and neighbourhoods by complementing current police work.
Community responsibility and engagement are essential aspects of developing and delivering effective crime prevention programs.
The localized approach strongly emphasizes that the existence of crime in a particular community is not solely the result of actions by a small number of individuals but is rather the interplay of a multitude of determinants present within communities. The goal is to identify how all citizens can contribute positively.
“Many crime and community safety issues emerge from local, specific contexts and thus are rightfully ‘owned’ at the community level. Communities experience crime problems first hand and thus have valuable knowledge that may be critical to the success of an intervention. Moreover, the long term success and sustainability of positive changes are seen as inextricably linked to the level of community involvement and ownership of strategies.” - International Centre for the Prevention of Crime (2006)
Prevent crime through evidence and evaluation – based experience
Evidence-based crime prevention refers to the collection of reliable and valid data that provide factual information regarding the effectiveness of crime prevention programs and/or policy.
Evaluation is a key component that should be built into all crime prevention programs so that effectiveness can be assessed.
Evidence-based crime prevention ensures that public funds are being spent on programs that actually work and allows decision makers to determine where funding should be allocated.
Prevent crime by establishing integrated, multi-sectoral, multi-disciplinary responses and partnerships
Crime prevention cannot be undertaken by one agency or sector alone. Crime prevention partnerships – formalized at the local level – are essential to coordinating efforts among the relevant sectors and disciplines, and ensuring that the risk factors associated with crime are attacked from every angle.
There are numerous risk factors associated with crime – each of which is addressed by different agencies, sectors and areas of responsibility. To ensure that a comprehensive approach is taken, each of these risk factors must be addressed by the various sectors and disciplines best suited to provide expertise. Each of these sectors needs to be kept apprised of what has transpired with individual cases.
Evidence shows that police are most effective when their crime prevention efforts are combined with multi-sectoral collaborations. Schools, governments, communities and numerous other key players all have vital roles to play.
“Partnerships are an integral part of effective crime prevention, given the wide-ranging nature of the causes of crime and the skills and responsibilities required to address them. This includes partnerships working across ministries and between authorities, community organizations, non-governmental organizations, the business sector and private citizens.” - Institute for the Prevention of Crime (2008)
Preventing crime through sustainable responses
Sustainable crime prevention creates lasting conditions, structures, programs and policies required to respond to crime and victimization.
Risk factors that may contribute to crime did not emerge overnight. It took years, decades and generations to develop. Similarly, building protective factors will not happen overnight. It will take years, decades and generations to develop these through sustained and long-term approaches to create safer communities in the long run.
Sustainable responses enable communities to build capacity and be prepared for crime. Without sustainable, long-term programs in place, crime and victimization will come back.
Prevent crime by increasing knowledge and sharing information among police, criminal justice and community agency partners
A vast amount of information and knowledge exists on crime prevention efforts that are effective. Facilitating the sharing of this information allows communities to build capacity using existing resources, ideas and practices.
Information sharing allows for the development and delivery of programs and strategies that may be working well elsewhere, instead of dedicating resources to re-invent the wheel.
It is important to share information among agencies and partners about individuals who are at risk for offending. The more information that is shared, the greater the likelihood that the individual can be assessed and targeted by multiple sectors at multiple fronts, thereby building lasting protective factors.
Prevent crime by recognizing the diversity of Ontarians
Diversity refers to the differences in race, ethnicity, nationality, religion, gender, sexual identity, socioeconomic status, physical ability, language, beliefs, values, behavioural patterns, or customs among various groups within Ontario.
Ontario’s demography is diverse in many ways and is continually changing. Crime prevention approaches should develop and deliver programs, policies and strategies that recognize and apply to the diverse regions, populations and groups in Ontario.
Ontario’s Aboriginal people have unique needs and capabilities. These must be recognized, acknowledged, engaged and partnered with when developing and delivering crime policies and programs.
There is a strong need to focus on three priority groups through the combined use of a social development and situational crime prevention approach:
- children and youth
- individuals convicted of a criminal offence, and
- victims of crime
Early Intervention with Children & Youth
The propensity to offend is significantly higher among one of our youngest demographic groups, with almost 50% of crime being committed by individuals between the ages 12-24.46 Research shows that 15-18 is the peak age period for delinquent acts.47
Although youth in Ontario represent only 23% of Ontario’s population, they account for 56% of those charged with a crime and 52% of those charged with a violent crime in 2007.48
Most importantly, it has been found that the earlier the onset of criminal and delinquent behaviour, and the longer it is allowed to continue without effective intervention, the greater the likelihood that a child will go on to committing crime in adulthood.
Both crime prevention theory and practice point to the fact that focusing on early intervention – that is, when problems often first begin to appear – is more effective in the long-term than responses that seek to address immediate issues. Intervening at critical points in a child’s life ensures that they are offered positive opportunities to lead safe and productive lives into adulthood.49
As such, there is a strong case to be made for early intervention. The social development approach seeks to place a high value on early intervention which naturally applies to all children and youth in Ontario. This must start at a young age.
“Young men of 15 to 24 are the age group with the highest rate of offending and victimisation worldwide.” - International Centre for the Prevention of Crime (2008)
“Identifying children and young people who are on the cusp of getting involved in offending is crucial in preventing them escalating rapidly into more serious crime, and in preventing them becoming victims of crime. The success of early intervention depends on services recognising individual risk, discussing potential solutions in a multi-agency forum and responding in a co-ordinated way.” - United Kingdom Home Office (2008)
Those Convicted of Criminal Offences
People convicted of a criminal offence do not necessarily receive a sentence that is served in a correctional facility. Of those that do, they come from our communities and most will return to our communities after serving their time in correctional institutions. On any given day, provincial corrections in Ontario has approximately 8,500 people in custody and another 56,000 under community supervision (probation, conditional sentences, parole). There are some significant consequences – both from a financial and community safety point of view – to the unsuccessful reintegration of offenders into society. It is to each community’s benefit to assist in the successful reintegration of current and former offenders.
A small number of people commit a disproportionately large number of crimes. Of those who have been convicted nearly 75% have had multiple prior convictions.50 As such, it is in society’s best interests to work with those who commit crime repeatedly. A key feature of successful crime prevention includes a focus on those who are responsible for committing crime repeatedly.
When offenders leave the correctional system and return to their communities, they face a vast number of pressing challenges including housing, employment, treatment and building pro-social networks. Former offenders rely on the resources and services available in their community to successfully reintegrate.
While offenders receive valuable treatment and intervention within the correctional system, a continuum of care that extends into the community and outside of the programming provided in correctional facilities is important. This should be provided collaboratively by the criminal justice system, health and social services, the offender’s family and/or friends, and community-based organizations. In addition, the offender’s family often requires support to cope. Parental/sibling criminality is often related to crime. Working closely with the families of offenders is a key to preventing crime.
“In the absence of material, psychological and social support at the time of their release, offenders may have a very difficult time breaking the cycle of release and re-arrest.” - International Centre for Criminal Law Reform and Criminal Justice Policy (2007)
In 2004, 5% of the Canadian population reported being a victim of violent crime with one third reporting being victims more than once.51 Victimization can be attributed to various individual, environmental and social factors. There are a number of predictors that point to victimization, with age being one of the strongest. Individuals between the ages of 15 and 24 were 9 times more likely than those aged 55 and older to be victims of violent crime. Other personal characteristics such as being male, being single/separated/divorced, or having a low household income are also significant predictors. It was also found that rates of violent victimization are 2½ times higher among Aboriginal people than the national rate.52 Many crimes victimize not only one individual but entire families and communities.
In Ontario, 187 victim services agencies reported serving approximately 3,000 individuals in 2005/06. 74% of these were female and 14% were male. 88% of those served were victims of crime against the person with 35% being victims of sexual assault. Most victims of violent crime knew the offender with 70% victimized by a spouse, ex-spouse or intimate partner, 24% by another family member and 6% by a friend, acquaintance or stranger.53
Victimization is a risk factor for crime and further victimization and as such, examining victimization is an important part of crime prevention. Studies show that there is a consistent link between juvenile offending and a history of violent victimization.54 Victimization can have severe financial, emotional and physical impacts on the actual victim, family and friends. Focusing on victims of crime prevents re-victimization by identifying the factors that make some individuals/groups more susceptible than others. Victim Services organizations can contribute to developing a more accurate understanding of the factors that contribute to victimization allowing crime prevention activities to be targeted towards the areas of greatest need. Reducing repeat victimization reduces re-offending and responding to victims requires a holistic approach.
Section 9 – The Next Phase
As outlined at the outset, the intention of the Crime Prevention in Ontario: A Framework for Action booklet is to enhance and build upon the current crime prevention dialogue, knowledge, partnerships and efforts in Ontario and encourage communities to engage in crime prevention.
The next step is to begin the consultation process with a view to developing a comprehensive crime prevention response to the crime issues faced by Ontario.
MCSCS welcomes your thoughts, comments and input on this document.
These can be sent to:
Manager, Program Development Section
External Relations Branch
Ministry of Community Safety and Correctional Services
25 Grosvenor Street
Toronto ON M7A 2H3
55 Appendix 1
|Level||Risk Factors||Protective Factors|
|Individual||A need for recognition and belonging
Early or precocious sexual activity
Feeling of hopelessness
Feeling of powerlessness
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
Involvement in the child welfare system
Limited attachment to the community
Low academic aspirations
Negative influences in the youth’s life
Negative labeling by teachers
Over-reliance on anti-social peers
Poor anger management
Poor educational potential
Poor employment potential
Poor mental health
Poor school performance
Premature and low birth weight
Pre-teen exposure to stress
Sense of alienation
|Average to above average intelligence
Close friendships with positive peers
Effective problem solving skills
Optimism and positive expectations for future
Participation in extracurricular activities
Personal coping strategies
Positive interpersonal skills
Positive pro-social behaviors
Positive relationship with an adult
Positive school experiences
Secure attachment with caregiver as infant
Sense of responsibility
Failure to provide basic care/necessities
Families with few resources
Mistreatment during childhood
Parent and/or sibling criminality
Parent’s own abuse/neglect as a child
Parents with substance abuse problems
Parental attitudes that support violence
Physical abuse and neglect
Single parent family
Unstable family income
|Adequate parental behavior and practices
Adequate parental supervision
Both parents involved in childcare
Caregiver expectation of positive future for children
Maternal employment and education
Parental level of education
Positive parent-child attachment and interactions Positive perceptions of mother
Positive support within the family
Presence of a strong father or mother figure in single parent families
Relationship based on family bond
Respect for friends by parents
Stability of the family unit
|Community||Availability of drugs and firearms
Crime in the area
Few or no positive role models
Feeling unsafe in neighbourhood
High concentration of poverty
High residential mobility
Lack of affordable housing
Limited access to health care
Neighbourhood characterized by poor housing, lack of recreational, health and educational facilities
Poor community design
Poor living facilities
Presence of young offenders
Presence of youth gangs
Racism and marginalization
|Access to resources, professional services and social support
Appropriate housing in close proximity to services
Caring school environment
Integration of families into the life of the community
Involvement in culturally-based activities
Positive, cohesive communities
Recreational facilities and programs for children and youth
Relationships established with neighbours
School activities involving the family
|Societal||Cultural norms supporting violence
In and out migration
Lack of accessibility to a continuum of services
Lack of accessible, affordable child care
Negative messaging in the media
Social disorganization – e.g. high poverty and residential mobility
Traditional gender roles
|High awareness of determinants of well-being
Low social tolerance of violence
Strong social awareness of maltreatment
Supportive social policies, including:
Prenatal and postnatal supports
Universal health care
|Systemic||Low level of public trust in police/justice system
Low level of perceived police/justice system legitimacy, i.e., inequitable access to the system, lack of transparency
Ineffectiveness of police/justice system in carrying out its full mandate
Ineffectiveness of police/justice system in engaging/mobilizing/partnering with community
|High level of public trust in police/justice system
High level of justice system transparency; equal access to criminal justice system services.
Effective/efficient delivery of police/justice system services
Strong police/justice system engagement/partnerships with community
2 Statistics Canada. 2006. Population and Dwelling Count Highlight Tables, 2006 Census (table). Canadian Statistics. Last updated July 8, 2009. http://www12.statcan.ca/census-recensement/2006/dp-pd/hlt/97-550/Index.c... NG=Eng&T=101 (accessed April 30, 2010)
3 Statistics Canada. 2006. Canada’s Ethnocultural Mosaic, 2006 Census: Provinces and Territories. Statistics Canada Catalogue
no. 97-562-XIE2006001. Ottawa. No Date. Analysis Series, 2006 Census. http://www12.statcan.ca/census-recensement/2006/assa/97-562/p13-eng.cfm (accessed April 30, 2010).
4 Ministry of Community Safety and Correctional Services. (2008). A Safe Strong Secure Ontario (MCSCS) Strategic Plan 2008-
2013. /stellent/groups/public/@mcscs/@www/@com/documents/webasset/ ec069601.pdf
5 Ministry of Aboriginal Affairs. (2011). Aboriginal People. Retrieved from http://www.aboriginalaffairs.gov.on.ca/english/services/
6 Statistics Canada. 2009. Measuring Crime in Canada: Introducing the Crime Severity Index and Improvements to the Uniform Crime Reporting Survey. [85-004-X.][Ottawa.] http://www.statcan.gc.ca/access_acces/alternative_alternatif.
7 General Social Survey – Cycle 13: Personal Safety and Perceptions of Policing (August 2001) Statistics Canada [page 11]
8 Statistics Canada. 2011. Police Reported Crime Statistics in Canada, 2010. [http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/85-002-x/2011001/article/11523-eng.htm]
9 Statistics Canada. (2004). General Social Survey. Ottawa.
10 Statistics Canada. 2008. Family Violence in Canada: A Statistical Profile [85-224.] [Ottawa.]www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/85-224-x/85-
11 Statistics Canada. 2011. Family Violence in Canada: A Statistical Profile [85-224.] [Ottawa] http://www.statcan.
12 Statistics Canada. 2011. Family Violence in Canada: A Statistical Profile [85-224.] [Ottawa] http://www.statcan.
13 Ministry of Transportation. (2010). Impaired Driving Fact Sheets. Retrieved from http://www.mto.gov.on.ca/english/safety/ impaired/fact-sheet.shtml
14 Statistics Canada. 2011. Police-reported crime statistics in Canada, 2010. [85-002.] [Ottawa] http://www.statcan. gc.ca/pub/85-002-x/2011001/article/11523-eng.htm#a5
15 Statistics Canada. 2011. Police-reported hate crime in Canada, 2009. [85-002.] [Ottawa.] http://www.statcan.gc.ca/ pub/85-002-x/2011001/article/11469-eng.htm#a11
16 OACP. 2007. Out of the Shadows: An Overview of Organized Crime in Ontario.
17 Public Safety Canada. (2008). Bullying Prevention: Nature and Extent of Bullying in Canada (BP-01). Retrieved from http://
18 Centre for Addiction and Mental Health. 2004. The Mental Health and Well-being of Ontario Students. Retrieved from: http://www.camh.net/News_events/News_releases_and_media_advisories_and_b...
19 Taylor-Butts, A and Angela Bressan. 2006. Youth Crime in Canada, 2006. [85-002-XIE, v.28, no.3.] [Ottawa.] Statistics Canada.
20 Erickson, Patricia G. and Jennifer E. Butters. 2006. “Final Report: Youth, Weapons and Violence in Toronto and Montreal.”
Report prepared for Public Safety & Emergency Preparedness Canada. Ottawa: Public Safety Canada.
21 Dauvergne, M. 2010. Knives and violent crime in Canada, 2008. [85-002-X.] [Ottawa.] Statistics Canada. April 2010. http://
22 RCMP. 2006. Feature Focus: Youth Gangs and Guns. [Ottawa]. http://www.rcmp-grc.gc.ca/pubs/yg-ja/gangs-bandes-eng.pdf
23 Astwood Strategy Corporation. 2004. 2002 Canadian Police Survey on Youth Gangs. Ottawa: Public Safety and Emergency
24 Ambitious Outsiders: The Evolution of Criminal Gangs and the Emergence of the Contemporary Street Gang by the Criminal
Intelligence Service of Ontario.
25 Astwood Strategy Corporation. 2004. 2002 Canadian Police Survey on Youth Gangs. Ottawa: Public Safety and Emergency
26 Ambitious Outsiders: The Evolution of Criminal Gangs and the Emergence of the Contemporary Street Gang by the Criminal
Intelligence Service of Ontario.
27 Criminal Intelligence Service Canada. 2009. Report on Organized Crime. [Ottawa.] http://www.cisc.gc.ca/annual_ reports/
28 Public Safety Canada. 2006. Working Together to Combat Organized Crime: A Public Report on Actions under the National
Agenda to Combat Organized Crime. Ottawa: Public Safety Canada.
29 DEA, FBI and RCMP. 2006. Canada/US Organized Crime Threat Assessment. www.publicsafety.gc.ca/prg/le/ _.../2006_
30 Ministry of Community Safety and Correctional Services. (2008). A Safe Strong Secure Ontario (MCSCS) Strategic Plan 2008-
2013. /stellent/groups/public/@mcscs/@www/@com/ documents/webasset/ ec069601.pdf
31 OACP. 2007. Out of the Shadows: An Overview of Organized Crime in Ontario. http://www.oacp.ca/upload5/news/C% 20ON_
32 Statistics Canada. 2008. Incarceration of Aboriginal people in adult correctional services. [Ottawa.] http://www.statcan.gc.ca/daily-quotidien/090721/t090721b1-eng.htm
33 Public Safety Canada. Risk Factors for Aboriginal Offenders. Research Summary Vol 11. No 5. September 2006. http://www.
35 Ministere de la securite publique. 2001. Departmental Crime Prevention Policy: Making our Communities Safer for Everyone. www.bibliotheque.assnat.qc.ca/01/MONO/2006/02/674660.pdf
36 NCPC. (2007). A Blueprint for Effective Crime Prevention. [Ottawa] Public Safety Canada.
37 Zhang, T. (2011). Costs of crime in Canada, 2008. Ottawa, ON: Research & Statistics Division, Department of Justice Canada
38 Dooling, Anjana (2009) ‘Crime Prevention Pays Why stopping crime before it happens saves us all’. Crime Prevention Ottawa
39 Institute for the Prevention of Crime (2009) Making Cities Safer: Action Briefs for Municipal Stakeholders.[Ottawa:ON]
40 Roche, J., Petrunka, K., & Peters, R. DeV. (2008). Investing in Our Future: Highlights of Better Beginnings, Better Futures
Research Findings at Grade 9. Kingston, ON: Better Beginnings, Better Futures Research Coordination Unit.
41 Jones, D et al. (2008). The Economic Return on PCCD’s Investment in Research-based Programs: A Cost-Benefi t Assessment of Delinquency Prevention in Pennsylvania. The Prevention Research Centre for the Promotion of Human Development.
42 Statistics Canada. 2004. General Social Survey on Victimization, Cycle 18: An Overview of Findings. [85-565-XIE.] http://dsppsd.pwgsc.gc.ca/Collection/Statcan/85-565-X/85-565-XIE2005001.pdf
43 Boyer E., McCaslin, W. First Nations: Communities at Risk and in Crisis: Justice and Security. Journal of Aboriginal Health,
45 Ontario Association of Chiefs of Police Community Policing Committee (2010) Community Policing Model.
46 NCPC. 2009. Supporting the Successful Implementation of the National Crime Prevention Strategy. [PS4-74/2009E-PDF.]
Public Safety Canada. http://www.publicsafety.gc.ca/res/cp/res/_fl /ssincps-amosnpc-eng.pdf
47 Canadian Council on Social Development and Canadian Criminal Justice Association. 1989. CPSD: A Discussion Paper for
Policy makers and Practitioners. http://www.ccsd.ca/cpsd/ccsd/pdf/cptsd1984.pdf
48 McMurtry, R. and Alvin Curling. 2008. Roots of Youth Violence. http://www.rootsofyouthviolence.on.ca
49 The John Howard Society of Alberta. 1995. Crime Prevention Through Social Development: A Literature Review. http://www.
50 Griffiths, C.T., Dandurand, Y, and Danielle Murdoch. 2007. The Social Reintegration of Offenders and Crime Prevention.
NCPC. http://www.publicsafety.gc.ca/res/cp/res/_fl /soc-reint-eng.pdf
51 Samuel Perreault, Julie Sauvé, and Mike Burns (2009) Multiple Victimization in Canada, 2004. C a n adian Centre for Justice
Statistics Profi le Series (Ottawa, ON) http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/85f0033m/85f0033m2010022-eng.pdf
52 Karen Mihorean, Sandra Besserer, Dianne Hendrick, Jodi-Anne Brzozowski, Catherine Trainor and Stacie Ogg (2001) A Profile of Criminal Victimization: Results of the 1999 General Social Survey. Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics Profile Series (Ottawa, ON).
53 Suzanne Tremblay and Sylvain de Leseleuc (2007) Victim Services in Canada: National, Provincial and Territorial Fact Sheets, 2005/2006. Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics (Ottawa ON).
54 Chen, Xiaojin. (2009) The Link Between Juvenile Offending and Victimization. Tulane University (New Orleans, LA).
55 National Crime Prevention Centre (2008) Family Based Risk and Protective Factors and Their Effects on Juvenile Delinquency. (Ottawa, ON) http://www.publicsafety.gc.ca/res/cp/res/rpf-jd-eng.aspx#a1;
National Crime Prevention Centre (2007) Youth Gang Involvement: What Are the Risk Factors? (Ottawa, ON)
Alex Sutherland, Simon Merrington, Sarah Jones and Kerry Baker with Colin Roberts (2005) Role of Risk and Protective Factors. Youth Justice Board (Wales);
MCSCS (2010) Canadian Provincial/Territorial Crime Prevention Jurisdictional Scan. (Toronto, ON)